Do you feel that your allergy symptoms get worse during the late spring and early summer? It’s possible that you may have a grass allergy. The summer season is grass pollination season, causing an array of bothersome symptoms in individuals who are allergic to it. The condition is called seasonal allergic rhinitis.
Common complaints of allergic rhinitis include recurrent sneezing, a runny nose, water/itchy eyes, postnasal drip, nasal congestion, or throat congestion. Those with severe grass allergies may report itchiness of the skin or urticaria (hives) after contact with grass. Other conditions that are associated with grass allergies include asthma, eczema, conjunctivitis, nasal polyps, sinusitis (sinus swelling), sleep apnea, laryngitis, and ear infections. Some individuals with grass allergies may also suffer from oral allergy syndrome (OAS), a condition marked by itchiness of the mouth and throat after consuming raw fruits and vegetables (tomatoes, potatoes, peaches).
The first step in minimizing allergy symptoms is to see what grass pollens you are allergic to. This can be accomplished via allergy testing. Patients are often tested for several different grass species usually dependent on which grasses are found in their area. A typical New England panel may include Rye grass, Bermuda grass, Timothy grass, Bahia grass, and Johnson grass. Allergy testing can be performed via a quick, pain-free skin test or by a blood test, which is often sent away to a reference lab. Both testing methods are safe and effective for diagnosing grass, as well as other types of environmental allergies. Skin testing is advantageous in that it can be performed in the office setting, the results are readily available, and multiple grass allergens can be tested.
Modifying your environment can be very effective way to decrease grass allergy symptoms. This includes keeping home windows closed, staying indoors on high pollen days, not drying clothing outside, showering before bedtime, and wearing appropriate clothing when mowing the lawn. Medical management includes over the counter antihistamines (e.g. Claritin, Zyrtec) and intranasal steroid sprays (e.g. Flonase), decongestants as well as some other otc type medications. For patients who are interested in long term improvement and decreased usage of allergy medications, immunotherapy can be considered. Immunotherapy is a method to improve the body’s immune system against those allergens that one is reacting to negatively. Immunotherapy can be administer subcutaneously (SCIT – “allergy shots”) or sublingually (SLIT – “allergy drops”). Multiple studies over the past 50 years have consistently demonstrated that SCIT is a safe and effective way to minimize allergy symptoms. SLIT is the most common form of allergy treatment in Europe and many studies have show it to be as safe and effective as traditional “allergy shots”. The major disadvantage for SLIT is that it is currently not FDA approved (although the drops are made from the exact same extract as allergy shots), and therefore this treatment would not be covered through medical insurance. Many of our patients have been successfully treated with both types of immunotherapy over the past 15 years.
If you or family members have questions or concerns regarding grass allergies, please do not hesitate to contact Colden & Seymour Ear, Nose, Throat, and Allergy to schedule an examination. Opinions expressed here are those of Daryl Colden, MD, FACS, and Christopher Jayne, BA. These opinions are not a substitute for direct medical evaluation and advice.
Just about everyone has had some experience with a person who snores. Snoring is very common among adults, affecting 90 million Americans. Although snoring may not be bothersome to the patient, his or her bed partner might feel differently as it can prevent them from obtaining a good night sleep.
Snoring refers to a low-pitched, rattling sound that a person makes while they breathe during sleep. The noise is caused by obstruction of airflow through the passages at the back of the mouth and nose. After falling asleep, the muscles in the roof of the mouth (palate), tongue, and throat begin to relax and collapse. This causes narrowing of the airway and obstruction of free air flow during inhalation and exhalation. As a result, structures in the nose/mouth begin to vibrate, creating the bothersome rattling noise that keeps people up at night. Patients with a large uvula (the thing that hangs down in the back of the throat), tongue, tonsils, and adenoids are more likely to snore at night. Excessive weight gain can be another cause of snoring.
Not only can snoring be annoying, but it might also be an indicator of a more serious health condition known as obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). OSA is a disorder in which a person’s breathing pauses while they are asleep. If untreated, OSA can increase the risk for cardiac and pulmonary related disease, such as high blood pressure and heart disease. The best way to get evaluated for OSA is obtain a complete head and neck examination (usually done by a Otolaryngologist-Head and Neck Surgeon) to identify anatomical risk factors for OSA (as well as snoring) .The next appropriate test in many situations is a sleep study (polysomnogram). A sleep study is usually performed by spending a night in the hospital while the patient’s sleep habits are recorded. In some situations, it is also possible to have an at-home sleep study, although the results underestimate the degree of sleep disturbance. If OSA is present, patients may be considered candidates for continuous positive airway pressure, or CPAP. CPAP is a small machine that has a mask attached to it which helps patients breathe at night. If no OSA is present, conservative measures are usually recommended. This includes exercise and weight loss, avoid sleeping in the supine position (laying on back), and avoid sedatives and stimulants (alcohol and coffee) right before bedtime. If snoring doesn’t improve conservatively and patients are extremely bothered by it, there are surgical procedures that can be performed which may help. One procedure is called a somnoplasty, in which the uvula is treated with a specialized energy source known as radiofrequency, whereby reducing the size and floppiness of this anatomical area, thereby reducing the sound known as snoring. For patients who snore and have OSA, a tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy may also be considered.
If you or family members have concerns regarding snoring or sleep apnea, please do not hesitate to contact Colden and Seymour Ears, Nose, Throat, and Allergy and set up an appointment today. Opinions expressed here are those of Daryl Colden, MD, FACS and Christopher Jayne, BA. They are not intended as medical advice and cannot substitute for the advice of your personal physician.